IFC 4.3.x development

6.5.3.2 IfcCostItem

Change log

IFC4

additionsattributesCostQuantities
additionsattributesCostValues
additionsattributesPredefinedType

6.5.3.2.1 Semantic definitions at the entity

An IfcCostItem describes a cost or financial value together with descriptive information that describes its context in a form that enables it to be used within a cost schedule. An IfcCostItem can be used to represent the cost of goods and services, the execution of works by a process, lifecycle cost and more.

Each instance of IfcCostItem may have a name and a description. Depending on the use for which the cost is intended, these values should be asserted on the basis of agreement. For instance, the Name attribute could be used to provide a common value that enables distinct instances to be brought together in a nesting arrangement (see below) while the Description attribute may be used to provide text used for item description in a costing schedule.

An IfcCostItem can link one or many IfcCostValue's representing a unit cost, total cost, or a unit cost with one or many quantities used to generate the total cost. The quantities can be given as individual quantities, or those quantities are provided as element quantities by one or many building elements. The IfcCostValue.CostType attribute indicates the category of cost, which may be used to present the value in a particular column. For nested cost items (having IfcRelNests relationship), IfcCostValue.CostType is significant such that IfcCostValue.AppliedValue is calculated as the sum of all nested costs having the same IfcCostValue.CostType or if set to an asterisk ('*'), then the sum of all nested costs of all cost types. An IfcCostValue may represent an original value or a value derived from formulas using IfcAppliedValueRelationship. For example, taxes may be calculated as a percentage of a subtotal.

HISTORY  New entity in IFC2.0.

IFC4 CHANGE  Attribute PredefinedType, CostValues, and CostQuantities added.

6.5.3.2.1 Attributes

# Attribute Type Description
IfcRoot
1 GlobalId IfcGloballyUniqueId Assignment of a globally unique identifier within the entire software world.
2 OwnerHistory OPTIONAL IfcOwnerHistory Assignment of the information about the current ownership of that object, including owning actor, application, local identification and information captured about the recent changes of the object,

> NOTE  only the last modification in stored - either as addition, deletion or modification.

> IFC4 CHANGE  The attribute has been changed to be OPTIONAL.
3 Name OPTIONAL IfcLabel Optional name for use by the participating software systems or users. For some subtypes of IfcRoot the insertion of the Name attribute may be required. This would be enforced by a where rule.
4 Description OPTIONAL IfcText Optional description, provided for exchanging informative comments.
IfcObjectDefinition
HasAssignments SET [0:?] OF IfcRelAssigns FOR RelatedObjects Reference to the relationship objects, that assign (by an association relationship) other subtypes of IfcObject to this object instance. Examples are the association to products, processes, controls, resources or groups.
Nests SET [0:1] OF IfcRelNests FOR RelatedObjects References to the decomposition relationship being a nesting. It determines that this object definition is a part within an ordered whole/part decomposition relationship. An object occurrence or type can only be part of a single decomposition (to allow hierarchical strutures only).

> IFC4 CHANGE  The inverse attribute datatype has been added and separated from Decomposes defined at IfcObjectDefinition.
IsNestedBy SET [0:?] OF IfcRelNests FOR RelatingObject References to the decomposition relationship being a nesting. It determines that this object definition is the whole within an ordered whole/part decomposition relationship. An object or object type can be nested by several other objects (occurrences or types).

> IFC4 CHANGE  The inverse attribute datatype has been added and separated from IsDecomposedBy defined at IfcObjectDefinition.
HasContext SET [0:1] OF IfcRelDeclares FOR RelatedDefinitions References to the context providing context information such as project unit or representation context. It should only be asserted for the uppermost non-spatial object.

> IFC4 CHANGE  The inverse attribute datatype has been added.
IsDecomposedBy SET [0:?] OF IfcRelAggregates FOR RelatingObject References to the decomposition relationship being an aggregation. It determines that this object definition is whole within an unordered whole/part decomposition relationship. An object definitions can be aggregated by several other objects (occurrences or parts).

> IFC4 CHANGE  The inverse attribute datatype has been changed from the supertype IfcRelDecomposes to subtype IfcRelAggregates.
Decomposes SET [0:1] OF IfcRelAggregates FOR RelatedObjects References to the decomposition relationship being an aggregation. It determines that this object definition is a part within an unordered whole/part decomposition relationship. An object definitions can only be part of a single decomposition (to allow hierarchical strutures only).

> IFC4 CHANGE  The inverse attribute datatype has been changed from the supertype IfcRelDecomposes to subtype IfcRelAggregates.
HasAssociationsSET [0:?] OF IfcRelAssociates FOR RelatedObjects Reference to the relationship objects, that associates external references or other resource definitions to the object.. Examples are the association to library, documentation or classification.
IfcObject
5 ObjectType OPTIONAL IfcLabel The type denotes a particular type that indicates the object further. The use has to be established at the level of instantiable subtypes. In particular it holds the user defined type, if the enumeration of the attribute PredefinedType is set to USERDEFINED.
IsDeclaredBy SET [0:1] OF IfcRelDefinesByObject FOR RelatedObjects Link to the relationship object pointing to the declaring object that provides the object definitions for this object occurrence. The declaring object has to be part of an object type decomposition. The associated IfcObject, or its subtypes, contains the specific information (as part of a type, or style, definition), that is common to all reflected instances of the declaring IfcObject, or its subtypes.

> IFC4 CHANGE  New inverse relationship, change made with upward compatibility for file based exchange.
Declares SET [0:?] OF IfcRelDefinesByObject FOR RelatingObject Link to the relationship object pointing to the reflected object(s) that receives the object definitions. The reflected object has to be part of an object occurrence decomposition. The associated IfcObject, or its subtypes, provides the specific information (as part of a type, or style, definition), that is common to all reflected instances of the declaring IfcObject, or its subtypes.

> IFC4 CHANGE  New inverse relationship, change made with upward compatibility for file based exchange.
IsTypedBy SET [0:1] OF IfcRelDefinesByType FOR RelatedObjects Set of relationships to the object type that provides the type definitions for this object occurrence. The then associated IfcTypeObject, or its subtypes, contains the specific information (or type, or style), that is common to all instances of IfcObject, or its subtypes, referring to the same type.

> IFC4 CHANGE  New inverse relationship, the link to IfcRelDefinesByType had previously be included in the inverse relationship IfcRelDefines. Change made with upward compatibility for file based exchange.
IsDefinedBy SET [0:?] OF IfcRelDefinesByProperties FOR RelatedObjectsSet of relationships to property set definitions attached to this object. Those statically or dynamically defined properties contain alphanumeric information content that further defines the object.

> IFC4 CHANGE  The data type has been changed from IfcRelDefines to IfcRelDefinesByProperties with upward compatibility for file based exchange.
IfcControl
6 Identification OPTIONAL IfcIdentifier An identifying designation given to a control

It is the identifier at the occurrence level.



> IFC4 CHANGE Attribute unified by promoting from various subtypes of IfcControl.
Controls SET [0:?] OF IfcRelAssignsToControl FOR RelatingControl Reference to the relationship that associates the control to the object(s) being controlled.
IfcCostItem
7 PredefinedType OPTIONAL IfcCostItemTypeEnum Predefined generic type for a cost item that is specified in an enumeration. There may be a property set given specificly for the predefined types.

> IFC4 CHANGE The attribute has been added.
8 CostValues OPTIONAL LIST [1:?] OF IfcCostValue Component costs for which the total cost for the cost item is calculated, and then multiplied by the total CostQuantities if provided.

If CostQuantities is provided then values indicate unit costs, otherwise values indicate total costs.

For calculation purposes, the cost values may be directly added unless they have qualifications. Cost values with qualifications (e.g. _IfcCostValue.ApplicableDate_, _IfcCostValue.FixedUntilDate_) should be excluded from such calculation if they do not apply.

> IFC4 CHANGE The attribute has been added.
9 CostQuantities OPTIONAL LIST [1:?] OF IfcPhysicalQuantity Component quantities of the same type for which the total quantity for the cost item is calculated as the sum.

> IFC4 CHANGE The attribute has been added.

6.5.3.2.2 Entity inheritance

dot_inheritance IfcCostItem IfcCostItem IfcControl IfcControl IfcCostItem->IfcControl IfcControl_children 7 more... IfcControl_children->IfcControl IfcObject IfcObject IfcControl->IfcObject IfcObject_children 5 more... IfcObject_children->IfcObject IfcObjectDefinition IfcObjectDefinition IfcObject->IfcObjectDefinition IfcContext IfcContext IfcContext->IfcObjectDefinition IfcRoot IfcRoot IfcObjectDefinition->IfcRoot IfcTypeObject IfcTypeObject IfcTypeObject->IfcObjectDefinition IfcPropertyDefinition IfcPropertyDefinition IfcPropertyDefinition->IfcRoot IfcRelationship IfcRelationship IfcRelationship->IfcRoot

6.5.3.2.3 Definitions applying to General Usage

6.5.3.2.3.1 Classification

Instances of IfcCostItem are used for cost estimates, budgets, and other forms, where a variety of identification codes are used extensively to identify the meaning of the cost. Examples include project phase codes, CSI codes, takeoff sequence numbers, and cost accounts. The model allows for all classes that are ultimately subtypes of IfcObject to inherit the ability to have one or more instances of IfcClassificationReference to be assigned. Where identification codes are required, the generic IfcRelAssociatesClassification facility should be used.

6.5.3.2.3.2 Classification Association

Any object occurrence or object type can have a reference to a specific classification reference, i.e. to a particular facet within a classification system.

6.5.3.2.3.3 Control Assignment

An IfcCostItem can be calculated based on quantities from objects through its relationship to IfcRelAssignsToControl.

For quantity-based costing, IfcElement, IfcTask, or IfcResource occurrence subtypes may be used. Multiple elements may be assigned of the same or different types, using IfcPhysicalQuantity entities defined at each object. Each IfcPhysicalQuantity type must be identical (for example, all values are IfcAreaQuantity) such that they can be added together.

For rate-based costing (specifically for IfcCostScheduleTypeEnum.SCHEDULEOFRATES), a single IfcTypeProduct, IfcTypeProcess, or IfcTypeResource subtype may be used to reflect rates for occurrences of such types. This enables the possibility to generate a quantity-based cost schedule for occurrences based on types with rate-based cost schedules.

IfcRelAssignsToControl is also used in the opposite direction to link the root IfcCostItem to an IfcCostSchedule where RelatingControl is the IfcCostSchedule.

Figure 311 illustrates cost item assignment derived from building elements. The IfcRelAssignsToControl relationship indicates building elements for which quantities are derived. Not shown, costs may also be derived from building elements by traversing assignment relationships from the assigned IfcProduct to IfcProcess to IfcResource, where all costs ultimately originate at resources. It is also possible for cost items to have assignments from processes or resources directly.

cost item

Figure 311 — Cost assignment

Type
'IfcProduct'
'IfcProcess'
'IfcResource'
'IfcTypeProduct'
'IfcTypeProcess'
'IfcTypeResource'

6.5.3.2.3.4 Identity

IfcRoot assigns the globally unique ID. In addition it may provide for a name and a description about the concept.

6.5.3.2.3.5 Nesting

An IfcCostItem can nest other instances of IfcCostItem through its relationships to IfcRelNests. This can be used to enable the development of complex groups of costs as may be found in cost schedules through to pages, sections and complete cost schedules.

There is always a summary cost item as the root item of the tree representing the cost item nesting. Subsequent instances of IfcCostItem are assigned to the summary cost item using IfcRelNests. The summary cost item itself is assigned to IfcCostSchedule through the IfcRelAssignsToControl relationship.

Figure 310 illustrates a cost item composition used for a cost schedule. Each line item has a quantity and separate unit costs where IfcCostValue.CostType indicates the category of cost. The summary item has a hierarchy of costs calculated according to IfcAppliedValueRelationship.ArithmeticOperator, where IfcCostValue.CostType identifies the category to be totalled. The Tax component has IfcCostValue.CostType set to 'Material' which indicates it is the sum of all nested values of the 'Material' category ($3 x 3000 + $118 x 100 = $20800). The Subtotal component has IfcCostValue.CostType set to an asterisk ('*') which indicates it is the sum of all nested values of all categories.

cost item

Figure 310 — Cost composition

Type
'IfcCostItem'

6.5.3.2.3.6 Object Predefined Type

6.5.3.2.3.7 Object Typing

Any object occurrence can be typed by being assigned to a common object type utilizing this concept. A particular rule, restricting the applicable subtypes of IfcTypeObject that can be assigned, is introduced by overriding this concept at the level of subtypes of IfcObject.

6.5.3.2.3.8 Object User Identity

An attribute Name and optionally Description can be used for all subypes of IfcObject. For those subtypes, that have an object type definition, such as ifcBeam - IfcBeamType, the common Name and optionally Description is associated with the object type.

6.5.3.2.3.9 Property Sets for Objects

Any object occurrence can hold property sets, each being a set of individual properties having name, description, value(s) and unit(s). A reference to applicable property sets, being part of this specification, is introduced at the level of sub types of IfcObject.

6.5.3.2.3.10 Property Sets with Override

Any object occurrence can hold property sets, either directly at the object occurrence as element specific property sets, or at the object type, as type property sets. In this case, the properties that are provided to the object occurrence are the combinations of element specific and type properties. In case, that the same property (within the same property set, is defined both, in occurrence and type properties, the property value of the occurrence property overrides the property value of the type property.

6.5.3.2.3.11 Revision Control

Ownership, history, and merge state is captured using IfcOwnerHistory.

6.5.3.2.4 Formal representations

ENTITY IfcCostItem
 SUBTYPE OF (IfcControl);
	PredefinedType : OPTIONAL IfcCostItemTypeEnum;
	CostValues : OPTIONAL LIST [1:?] OF IfcCostValue;
	CostQuantities : OPTIONAL LIST [1:?] OF IfcPhysicalQuantity;
END_ENTITY;